Management & Security
Microsoft cloud services deliver hyperscale services and infrastructure, enterprise-grade capabilities, and many choices for hybrid connectivity. Customers can choose to access these services either via the Internet or with Azure ExpressRoute, which provides private network connectivity. The Microsoft Azure platform allows customers to seamlessly extend their infrastructure into the cloud and build multitier architectures. Additionally, third parties can enable enhanced capabilities by offering security services and virtual appliances. This white paper provides an overview of security and architectural issues that customers should consider when using Microsoft cloud services accessed via ExpressRoute. It also covers creating more secure services in Azure virtual networks.
The following logic chart can direct you to a specific example of the many security techniques available with the Azure platform. For quick reference, find the example that best fits your case. For more complete explanations, continue reading through the paper.
Microsoft has a comprehensive approach to protect cloud infrastructure needed to run hyperscale global services. Microsoft cloud infrastructure includes hardware, software, networks, and administrative and operations staff, in addition to the physical datacenters.
This approach provides a more secure foundation for customers to deploy their services in the Microsoft cloud. The next step is for customers to design and create a security architecture to protect these services.
Although Microsoft invests heavily in protecting the cloud infrastructure, customers must also protect their cloud services and resource groups. A multilayered approach to security provides the best defense. A perimeter network security zone protects internal network resources from an untrusted network. A perimeter network refers to the edges or parts of the network that sit between the Internet and the protected enterprise IT infrastructure.
In typical enterprise networks, the core infrastructure is heavily fortified at the perimeters, with multiple layers of security devices. The boundary of each layer consists of devices and policy enforcement points. Devices could include the following: firewalls, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) prevention, Intrusion Detection or Protection Systems (IDS/IPS), and VPN devices. Policy enforcement can take the form of firewall policies, access control lists (ACLs), or specific routing. The first line of defense in the network, directly accepting incoming traffic from the Internet, is a combination of these mechanisms to block attacks and harmful traffic while allowing legitimate requests further into the network. This traffic routes directly to resources in the perimeter network. That resource may then “talk” to resources deeper in the network, transiting the next boundary for validation first. The outermost layer is called the perimeter network because this part of the network is exposed to the Internet, usually with some form of protection on both sides. The following figure shows an example of a single subnet perimeter network in a corporate network, with two security boundaries.
There are many architectures used to implement a perimeter network, from a simple load balancer in front of a web farm, to a multiple subnet perimeter network with varied mechanisms at each boundary to block traffic and protect the deeper layers of the corporate network. How the perimeter network is built depends on the specific needs of the organization and its overall risk tolerance.
As customers move their workloads to public clouds, it is critical to support similar capabilities for perimeter network architecture in Azure to meet compliance and security requirements. This document provides guidelines on how customers can build a secure network environment in Azure. It focuses on the perimeter network, but also includes a comprehensive discussion of many aspects of network security. The following questions inform this discussion:
- How can a perimeter network in Azure be built?
- What are some of the Azure features available to build the perimeter network?
- How can back-end workloads be protected?
- How are Internet communications controlled to the workloads in Azure?
- How can the on-premises networks be protected from deployments in Azure?
- When should native Azure security features be used versus third-party appliances or services?
The following diagram shows various layers of security Azure provides to customers. These layers are both native in the Azure platform itself and customer-defined features:
Inbound from the Internet, Azure DDoS helps protect against large-scale attacks against Azure. The next layer is customer-defined public endpoints, which are used to determine which traffic can pass through the cloud service to the virtual network. Native Azure virtual network isolation ensures complete isolation from all other networks, and that traffic only flows through user configured paths and methods. These paths and methods are the next layer, where NSGs, UDR, and network virtual appliances can be used to create security boundaries to protect the application deployments in the protected network.
The next section provides an overview of Azure virtual networks. These virtual networks are created by customers, and are what their deployed workloads are connected to. Virtual networks are the basis of all the network security features required to establish a perimeter network to protect customer deployments in Azure.